final exam –

final exam
How to Write Your Exam:
Right away start answering the question. It is called an essay exam but don’t write an essay, just answer the questions.
For this exam, your two main goals are to prove that you:
1) understand the ideas & concepts covered in this course; and…
2) have read all of the required readings & reviewed the lectures.
To achieve the first goal, you need to write clear and thorough answers. If your answers are confusing, then you will not have demonstrated that you understand the material. Poorly written answers will not get full credit. Write your answers in complete sentences & organized paragraphs. There is no required length for your answers, but they need to be long enough & detailed enough to fully answer the question. To show that you understand these ideas, you need to write your answers in your own words: do not use quotes. You can use this link to understand the difference between quotes and paraphrasing:
To achieve the second goal and show me that you have read all of the relevant readings & lectures, you will need to cite all the relevant sources for each answer. These citations show that you read them and used them to write your exam. Every question requires you to cite sources, and all questions require that you combine information from the articles, textbook, & lecture. If you do not use and cite all of the necessary sources for each question, that is evidence that you did not do the required readings or review that lecture for that topic.
INSTRUCTIONS: Read my comments on your previous exam, and the instructions on the previous page very thoroughly, then answer these exam questions; if you don’t follow the instructions you may fail. Do not copy the questions on your exam; but you do need to clearly label or number your answers. To answer the questions fully and meet the exam goal, each answer will need to combine information from 1 or 2 articles, the textbook, and lecture. Cite all of your sources. Remember to format scientific names correctly: italicize both genus and species, but only capitalize the genus.
1) Homo sapiens: encephalization & cooperative breeding Describe some of the potential problems for Homo sapiens when the selection pressures favoring bipedal morphology eventually conflicted with the selection pressures favoring increased encephalization. Then explain some of the physical and behavioral adaptations that evolved to solve these problems; be sure to describe adaptations seen in both infants and adults that evolved as solutions to the problems of encephalization. Articles to answer this question : “Mothers and Others” and “The Evolution of Menopause”
2) Homo sapiens: cognitive changes & spread First, describe the debate about the Out of Africa versus Multiregional theories of human evolution, and then explain what theory is now best supported by the current fossil and genetic evidence. Next, describe the debate about whether there was a sudden cognitive “revolution” versus there was a more gradual cognitive “evolution”, and explain which theory is best supported by the current evidence.
Articles to answer this question : “Morning of The Modern Mind” and “ New View of the birth of Homo sapiens”
3) Homo sapiens: variation First explain the timing and selective pressures causing hominin skin color changes from our LCA 6 m.y.a. to the diversity we see now in modern humans. Use evidence from the readings to evaluate the debate about whether race is a biological or cultural category. Then, explain why sex and gender have traditionally assumed to be binary, and the current evidence suggesting that these assumptions may be invalid. Finally, discuss why we should carefully examine our current use of racial and/or gender categories.
Articles to answer this question : “How Real is Race” and “Gender Cognitive Dissonance”

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