Three ways in which the changes common to aging can be delayed

Major physiological changes associated with decreased sex hormones release to the body

Men

The purpose of this discussion will be to address the physiological changes seen in the aged related to the decreased secretion of sex hormones in the body. The major sex hormone testosterone peaks in early adulthood for men with a drop of about 1 % each year after age 30, changes are generally seen later in life and function does not completely end (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). Aging has been described as a mild chronic proinflammatory process (Frungieri et al., 2018). Untreated inflammation from trauma, infections agents or medications of the male sex organs can lead to infertility, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (Frungieri et al., 2018). Older men are at risk for prostate cancer due to chronic inflammation, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) a key enzyme of prostaglandins is excessively produced (Frungieri et al., 2018). Treatments to decrease risk for development of inflammatory process include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for example aspirin, soy and green tea (Frungieri et al., 2018).

Women
The major sex hormonal changes occur in women around age 50, the ovaries stop producing estrogen and progesterone causing the anterior pituitary gland to raise the serum levels follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH); ovulation begin to cease, the menses terminate with dropping estrogen and progesterone levels (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). Older women experience thinning of vaginal mucosa, loss of elasticity, decreased glandular vaginal and cervical secretions causing inflammation, and dyspareunia (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). Despite these findings, women appear to be immune privileged, they often respond to different vaccines with stronger humoral response offering greater protection overall (Giefing-Kröll et al., 2015). Unfortunately, as the protective effects of estrogen cease, so do the protective immunological benefits, postmenopausal women have fewer total lymphocytes, mostly B and CD4, T lymphocytes (Giefing-Kröll et al., 2015). Treatments to help boost immune system include hormone replacement therapy (HRT), estrogen, increased B-lymphocytes and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production (Giefing-Kröll et al., 2015).

Patient example for labs and diagnostic tests, give an injection

Mr. B.B age 55 had a PSA 4ng/m/L. Upon exam reviewed results and discussed causes and options. Since Mr. B.B has no family history is a European man and therefore he has lower risk. A urine was sent, and it came back abnormal with bacteria greater than 10,000. He will be treated with an oral antibiotic Amoxicillin for 7 days for this urinary tract infection.
Mrs. AW age 53 has been feeling weaker over the last few weeks, no cough, shortness of breath or chest pain noted. Appetite intact no recent weight loss to note, vitals all stable. After further evaluation patient states she stopped taking her HRT and did not think that would cause her to feel so bad. She will resume meds ASAP. Mrs. AW agreed to also receive a shingles vaccine today, given to her left deltoid.

Results of new knowledge that impact plan of care

The aging process is full of surprises for both men and women. Men, despite decreasing testosterone, testes shrinkage, and decreased sperm production, men can still father a child, if their spouse is still of childbearing age (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). Women get to enjoy the effects and protective nature of all the hormones until after menopause and then the real party begins with hot flashes, severe mood swings, sweating, insomnia, visual changes and headaches (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). Both pts would need good education regarding current plan treatment and a 1-month follow-up care to maintain optimal health

 
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